As part of the most important European attraction fair (EAS 2016) in cooperation with Kirmes & Park Revue from Germany, which took place in Barcelona, the aquapark Istralandia won the award European Star Award 2016 – Europe’s Best water parks and is proclaimed as the fifth best auqapark in Europe.In first place is the aquapark Siam Park from Tenerife (Spain), in second place Costa Caribe from Spain, and in third place Tropical Islands from Germany. The international jury evaluated the quality and safety of the attractions, the quality of the catering offer, cleanliness and tidiness, the horticultural arrangement of the entire aquapark, the kindness of the staff and the content of the animation for children and adults. The award is even more significant as this is only the third year of operation of the Istralandia aquapark, as well as the fact that there were 300 aquaparks from all over Europe in the competition. Since the first day, Istralandia has seen an increase in visitors, and this year it was visited by more than 190.000 visitors “This year we are recording an increasing trend of visitors as a result of increased marketing activities, organizational improvements, quality enrichment of animation activities and of course favorable weather conditions that accompanied us during the tourist season. ” Silvio Kraljević, the park manager, pointed out and added that this recognition means a lot to the whole team, which he is extremely proud of and which has done a great job.When it is known that there are 300 aquaparks in Europe, and in Croatia’s immediate surroundings in Italy there are more than 110 aquaparks led by Aqualandia Jesolo and Caneva Aquapark from Lake Garda, which won 6th and 9th place and which are on the market more than 25 years, the success of this great Croatian tourist story is even greater. “The increase compared to 2015 in relative terms is 5% or 9.000 more visitors in the 2016 season“Kraljević points out and adds that with the intensified visit, there was an increase in consumption as a result of the enrichment of the offer, the opening of new catering outlets and the continuous education of staff.In the third year of its existence, Aquapark Istralandia has already won 11 awards at the local, regional and international level, which is just proof that quality facilities with great effort, commitment, constant investment in improving service quality and ultimately successful management brought sure success. The success of the Istralanida aquapark, as well as all other tourist companies from small to large, is the success of the local community as well as the entire tourist economy of Novigrad and Brtonigla.
Days of Croatian Tourism, a traditional gathering of tourism workers this year, will be held on October 26 and 27 in Bluesun Hotels in Bol on the island of Brac, organized by the Ministry of Tourism, the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Croatian Tourist Board. The two-day gathering will analyze the tourist season of 2016 and announce the main activities for the preparation of the tourist year 2017.On this occasion, the Minister underlined that the topics that will be discussed on the second day of DHT are currently burning issues in the tourism sector: “A word about us, an extremely important event that will take place in our tourist pearl Bol on Brač. Within the round tables, we decided to address the topics that we detected with the profession as very important for the future development of tourism. Our message is that the challenge is progressing and that we want to solve problems”, Said Minister Kliman.The first round table, to be held on October 27, will discuss staff as a driving force for tourism. The round table will be preceded by a presentation of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism Poreč on the topic “Social distance and polychronicity index of young employees in the hotel industry” which was selected for funding in a competitive competition of the Adris Foundation. The aim of the project is to investigate the level of skills of young hotel workers, determine their level of engagement, attitudes towards careers in the hotel industry, problems of first work experience and determine the extent of differences in the level of service of young people who grew up and studied in Croatia. . The 45-minute round table will be moderated by Ms. Iva Bahunek (Croatian Hotel Entrepreneurs Association), and the participants of the round table will be Mr. Nenad Šepak (HOK Caterers Guild), Ms. Gordana Deranja (HUP), while the CES and Ministry of Labor participants will be confirmed. still waiting.The second round table is held under the name “Cro card – encouraging domestic tourist spending”, and the introductory presentation and the role of moderator will be taken over by the director of Horwath consulting Siniša Topalović. He will be joined at the round table by Jako Andabak (Bluesun Hotels), Boris Žgomba (UHPA and UPA at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce), Ms. Martina Jus (HBOR) and Josip Zaher (Croatian Chamber of Commerce). The third (central) round table is entitled “How to achieve a competitive and sustainable model of Croatian tourism management”, which will discuss a controversial topic – how important is the Ministry of Tourism, should it be abolished or its powers strengthened? Neven Ivandić (Institute for Tourism), Miroslav Dragičević (Horwath consulting), Kristian Šustar (HUP Zagreb), Sean Lisjak (HGK Marina Association) and Marcel Medak (HGK Health Tourism Association) will represent the round table. In the evening, the annual award ceremony of the annual Croatian tourist awards will take placeThe President of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce, Luka Burilović, announced the 16th Croatian Tourist Forum, with the opening of which the DHT will begin. “The extension of the tourist season is crucial for the further growth of this sector, but also of the entire Croatian economy, and for that we need permanent airlines with emitting markets.”Said Burilović, presenting the central theme of this traditional Forum of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce” Air transport in tourism – across borders to year-round business. ” He also announced the awards of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce “Tourist flower – quality for Croatia” which is being held for the 20th anniversary with a record number of registered entities, as many as 265, in 8 different categories. Burilović also referred to the growing problem of the real sector – a major disturbance in the labor market caused by the departure of part of the working population and the long-term mismatch of the education system with the needs of the economy. “Tourism is experiencing strong growth, but it is difficult to estimate how much it would have been in the end if most of the tourism sector had not struggled to find, especially seasonal, workers. It is necessary to find a solution urgently”, Says Burilović.The Forum will be followed by a presentation of measuring the effectiveness of national tourism branding, with the director of the Croatian National Tourist Board Ratomir Ivičić will also refer to the guidelines for 2017. “In the Croatian National Tourist Board, we conducted several important market research on the basis of which we adopted strategic documents, but also made key steps in promotional activities. One of the most significant challenges of Croatian tourism is certainly the affirmation of the national tourist brand of the country, and this challenge is much easier to deal with now that we have clearly defined tactics and strategies within the new umbrella communication concept under the slogan “Croatia full of life”. This is one of the main reasons why the perception of Croatia in foreign markets is changing from a destination of sun and sea to a destination full of different experiences.”, Said director Ivicic.Source: Mint
Poznata domaća modna inovatorica i poduzetnica Katarina Džale i poduzetnica Rašeljka Maras, osnažile su osnivački tim s predsjednikom Hrvatske mreže poslovnih anđela (CRANE) Davorinom Štetnerom u daljnjem razvoju projekta pod nazivom Unique Travel Set.Davorin Štetner entered the project as a partner providing additional strength and support to an already successful team that designs and creates functional travel clothing. “Although I did not plan this investment, the girls won me over with their product and clear strategy. These are experienced entrepreneurs with several successful projects behind them and that attracted me the most” Stetner explained the reasons for his entry into the Unique Travel Set.Photo: Crane.hrThe Unique Travel Set is a unique product on the global market, consisting of seven garments for women, which by combining with each other provide comfort, elegance and functional styling for most travel occasions of a few days. The set consists of two types of pants, a dress, a T-shirt, a hat, a belt and removable sleeves, and the total weight of the package is 1,3 kilograms, which makes it an ideal item of clothing for travel. By using one set of clothes, it is possible to spend a few days in different combinations of a set that is resistant to creasing and sweating.The set consists of two types of pants, a dress, a T-shirt, a hat, a belt and removable sleeves, and the total weight of the package is 1,3 kilograms, which makes it an ideal clothing item for travel.”This product was created as a result of my many years of working with women as a fashion designer, where I realized that we all have the same problem, and that is how to pack for the trip so that we have everything with us, so that clothes do not crease and sweat . The result is the Unique Travel Set, a product that is a solution for all women who want to travel comfortably and peacefully, without worrying about luggage, weight of suitcases and carrying too heavy a suitcase”, Added Xhale, the creator of the set. The product was developed a year ago in Croatia, where it is made from the highest quality fabric, and has been tested on more than 50 women around the world over the past period. With their comments and feedback, they enabled a significant improvement of the product itself and its function.Unique Travel Set goes on sale early next year, and the product will be managed by the newly established American company Travel Fashion Lab Inc. owned by Katarina Džala, Rašeljka Maras and Davorin Štetner, with the aim of conquering the global travel clothing market.
The total value of the works is estimated at more than 420 million Euros, and the ministry expects that around 360 million Euros will be non-refundable funds. “That decision is up to the European Commission. If this is not the case, the Republic of Croatia will participate in the missing gap”, Said Butković and removed the connection between the construction of the bridge and the elections, and added that the Pelješac Bridge is a priority of this Government, that previous governments worked on it and that there is a consensus of all political parties on its construction.Photo: Vlada.hrAs for the works so far, all contracts with previous contractors have been terminated as well as the supervision contract. What still needed to be clarified this year was the issue of safe passage, a right that neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina has. This was discussed at a meeting held by Minister Butković in June last year with the Minister of Transport from Bosnia and Herzegovina. He submitted documentation to him, which shows that a joint commission was formed in 2007 and that all the technical characteristics that needed to be met by BiH were implemented in this project. “There are no more doubts and the project can go further,” he said. The Minister stressed that the entire project, which consists of three phases, should be completed by 2021, and if there will be no complaints, the start of construction of the bridge should be in autumn 2017. After the 21st session of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the press conference was held by the Minister of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure Oleg Butković and the Minister of Construction and Physical Planning Lovro Kuščević.After the Government of the Republic of Croatia made a decision on financing the project “Road connection with southern Dalmatia”, Which includes the construction of the Peljesac Bridge, Minister Butković explained the details related to the project. This is a project that includes three phases, and one of those phases is the construction of the Peljesac Bridge, one of the most important infrastructure projects in the Republic of Croatia, said the Minister, and added “Now we have reached a serious stage to start the construction of this large infrastructure project this year, so the Government has made a decision to finance the Peljesac Bridge.“. The total value of all three phases is 420.334.596,00 Euros and these funds, by the decision of the Government, will be provided by the Ministry through 5 budget years. The mentioned phases are: construction of the bridge, construction of access roads and the third phase of the Ston bypass.At the moment, two processes are underway for the Pelješac Bridge; the first process – the tender for the selection of contractors, (two stages of the tender: first stage; legal, financial and technological capabilities of bidders, the second stage; determining the price of the Peljesac Bridge.) and the second process, which involves the application of so-called. major project according to the EC. We remind you that at the end of December last year, the Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure received a JASPERS certificate, that the project was well prepared and that the application was in order.Construction of the Peljesac Bridge is expected to begin in the fallRegarding the start of works, Minister Butković announced that they expect the start of construction of the Pelješac Bridge in the fall, after the selection of the contractor, and stressed that the tenders are in two stages. “We are now at the end of the first, if there are no complaints, by June we will have a contractor for the Peljesac BridgeHe said. When asked by a journalist about a case in which investors want to invest in maritime property or port infrastructure and cannot get money from banks because they cannot register as owners, Minister Kuščević answered that the position is clear: “Maritime property is a common good and inalienable owned by the Republic of Croatia. There is no talk of it being privatized or sold. Concession approvals, short-term and multi-year, – yes. Because we have to start using our resources, and so the maritime good. But in accordance with the plan and the law. So it’s a concession, not ownership. “
Breathtaking natural beauties, the roar of water overflowing over seven magnificent travertine waterfalls and the rich cultural and historical heritage, which evokes the spirit of past times, are the values with which generations grow up along Krk. But without awareness of the preservation of our natural heritage and the sustainable development of tourism, we can destroy our natural resources in the long run.With this motive and goal, in order to preserve the millennial heritage, the Public Institution “Krka National Park” this year started making new business decisions within the project of responsible management and safety of visitors in order to relieve the most famous and most visited site, Skradinski Buk. “National and nature parks are one of our strongest brands, as evidenced by the fact that they were visited by over 3,5 million visitors last year. July and August are the months with the greatest pressure, so it is important that the most visited parks take measures to relieve the most attractive locations, which is now the first thing the Krka National Park has done. The Ministry supports projects of effective visitor management at the national level, both financially and professionally. Since about ten days ago, visitors have the opportunity to buy a ticket to the parks and online. This is another mechanism for better visitor management. With the support of the Ministry, our parks have applied for EU co-financing of 20 visitor infrastructure improvement projects worth around HRK 770 million, which are now undergoing the approval phase. Better visitor infrastructure will facilitate access to parks but also facilitate their effective protection. Therefore, these projects are currently one of our priorities. ” – pointed out Dr. sc. Mario Šiljeg, State Secretary at the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Energy, emphasized that all these activities will contribute to raising the level of quality of visitor management and further development of the areas where the parks are located.Krka National Park is an important economic entity that, in addition to protecting natural beauties and rich cultural and historical heritage, actively participates in strengthening the local community and positioning Šibenik-Knin County as a brand. The Krka National Park brand is recognized worldwide as an unavoidable destination for visitors to the Republic of Croatia and is also its first protected area to implement active measures to limit the number of visitors in order to preserve the recognizable heritage of the wider area along the Krka. “Šibenik-Knin County fully supports all activities of the National Park “Krka”, and related to the limited visit to Skradinski Buk, because the sustainable development of this area is an absolute priority. It is in these activities that we see the challenge of the tourist development of the wider area of the Krka National Park, as well as the entire Šibenik-Knin County. I am pleased to point out the exceptional cooperation with the Krka National Park and once again congratulate you on the successfully applied project “Unknown Krka”, the implementation of which will certainly encourage the development of the rural part of our county.”, Said Goran Pauk, prefect of Šibenik-Knin County.In order to protect the fundamental phenomenon of the Park, increase the safety of visitors and reduce crowds, and to provide each visitor with a complete experience in protected nature, several phases of the project were realized. The main road to Skradinski Buk and the branch office of the Public Institution “NP Krka” in Skradin have been arranged, in which there are now eight points of sale instead of the previous three, and the movement in it is one-way due to efficient service provision. Furthermore, from this summer, visitors will be able to access the boat in Skradin only with a purchased ticket for the Krka National Park, which will reduce the queue for boarding the ship and leave visitors more time to tour the sights in the city of Skradin. “In the year in which we mark the 32nd anniversary of the proclamation of the Krka National Park and the city after which the fundamental phenomenon of the Park is named, we are part of a truly important moment in its institutional history. Founded with the aim of protecting the values created by the symbiosis of nature and man, NP “Krka” for 32 years justifies the role of guardian of our heritage, the heritage we inherited and which we are obliged to leave to those who come after us. And it is through this project, the project of protection of the fundamental phenomenon of the Park, that we are fulfilling the order of civilization that was placed before this institution thirty-two years ago. Providing visitors with more quality time for sightseeing in the city of Skradin makes a strong contribution to the economy of the city, which sees tourism as its most significant potential and strategic direction.”, Emphasized mr. sc. Antonijo Brajković, Mayor of the City of Skradin.This summer, the number of visitors to Skradinski Buk will be limited. Visitors to Lozovac and Skradin will have access to displays showing the available number of tickets for Skradinski buk. Those visitors who will not be able to enter Skradinski buk at a certain moment will be offered alternative directions, ie programs for visiting sites on the middle and upper course of the Krka. “Visitors will be able to spend time waiting to enter Skradinski buk visiting educational hiking trails and lookouts on the middle course of the Krka, will be able to enjoy the sacred heritage that Krka nurtures, discover monuments that testify to the turbulent past of this area, discover undiscovered parts of Krka in one of the many rural households that offer a rich selection of traditionally prepared and organically grown local products. This year’s novelty is also on line reservation and sale of tickets for NP “Krka” via web shop Parks of Croatia so that visitors can plan their arrival in the Park on time and with quality”, Concluded mr. sc. Krešimir Šakić, director of the Public Institution “Krka National Park”.As of this year, the movement of visitors along Skradinski Buk has been one-way. Upon arrival at the site, visitors will be able to get acquainted with the direction of the tour on a map of the area, and there are signposts that will make it easier for visitors to move. Tour direction (Walk this way) is especially prominent and there are signs prohibiting movement for visitors who would head in the opposite direction.Finally, with additional promotional activities, visitors will be invited to plan their arrival time and book tickets for the Krka National Park. One of the promotional tools for this purpose is a short video which you can watch below attached.
Pinterest Electronic cigarettes are widely promoted and used to help smokers quit traditional cigarettes, but a new analysis from UC San Francisco found that adult smokers who use e-cigarettes are actually 28 percent less likely to stop smoking cigarettes.The study — a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data — is the largest to quantify whether e-cigarettes assist smokers in quitting cigarettes.The findings will be published online January 14, 2016 in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. “As currently being used, e-cigarettes are associated with significantly less quitting among smokers,” concluded first author Sara Kalkhoran, MD who was a clinical fellow at the UCSF School of Medicine when the research was conducted. She is now at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.“E-cigarettes should not be recommended as effective smoking cessation aids until there is evidence that, as promoted and used, they assist smoking cessation,” Kalkhoran wrote.Electronic cigarettes, known by a variety of names including vapor pens, are battery-powered devices that heat nicotine and flavorings to deliver an aerosol inhaled by the user. While they are promoted as a way to quit traditional cigarettes, they also are promoted as a way to get nicotine in environments where traditional cigarettes are prohibited, even though more than 430 cities and several states ban their use in smoke free sites where conventional cigarettes are also prohibited.In 2015, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend the devices to help adults quit smoking. No e-cigarette company has submitted an application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to approve e-cigarettes for smoking cession, and the FDA has not taken any action against companies that claim e-cigarettes are effective for quitting smoking.In their analysis, the UCSF team reviewed 38 studies assessing the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette cessation among adult smokers. They then combined the results of the 20 studies that had control groups of smokers not using e-cigarettes in a meta-analysis that concluded that the odds of quitting smoking were 28 percent lower in smokers who used e-cigarettes compared to those who did not.There were no language restrictions imposed on the studies, which included both real-world observational as well as clinical studies. The studies included smokers who both were and were not interested in quitting, and included people as young as 15 years old.The studies included in the analysis controlled for many variables, including demographics, past attempts to quit, and level of nicotine dependence.“The irony is that quitting smoking is one of the main reasons both adults and kids use e-cigarettes, but the overall effect is less, not more, quitting,” said co-author Stanton A. Glantz, PhD, UCSF professor of medicine and director of the UCSF Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. “While there is no question that a puff on an e-cigarette is less dangerous than a puff on a conventional cigarette, the most dangerous thing about e-cigarettes is that they keep people smoking conventional cigarettes.”“The fact that they are freely available consumer products could be important,” Glantz added.E-cigarette regulation has the potential to influence marketing and reasons for use, the authors wrote:“The inclusion of e-cigarettes in smoke-free laws and voluntary smoke-free policies could help decrease use of e-cigarettes as a cigarette substitute, and, perhaps, increase their effectiveness for smoking cessation. The way e-cigarettes are available on the market – for use by anyone and for any purpose – creates a disconnect between the provision of e-cigarettes for cessation as part of a monitored clinical trial and the availability of e-cigarettes for use by the general population.” Email Share on Twitter LinkedIn Share Share on Facebook
LinkedIn Email Share on Twitter Pinterest Share on Facebook Share To learn what different cells do, scientists switch them on and off and observe what the effects are. There are many methods that do this, but they all have problems: too invasive, or too slow, or not precise enough. Now, a new method to control the activity of neurons in mice, devised by scientists at Rockefeller University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, avoids these downfalls by using magnetic forces to remotely control the flow of ions into specifically targeted cells.Jeffrey Friedman, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, and colleagues successfully employed this system to study the role of the central nervous system in glucose metabolism. Published online today in Nature, the findings suggest a group of neurons in the hypothalamus play a vital role in maintaining blood glucose levels.“These results are exciting because they provide a broader view of how blood glucose is regulated–they emphasize how crucial the brain is in this process,” says Friedman. “And having a new means for controlling neural activity, one that doesn’t require an implant and allows you to elicit rapid responses, fills a useful niche between the methods that are already available.” It may also be possible to adapt this method for clinical applications, says Jonathan Dordick of Rensselaer. “Depending on the type of cell we target, and the activity we enhance or decrease within that cell, this approach holds potential in development of therapeutic modalities, for example, in metabolic and neurologic diseases.”Magnetic mind controlPrevious work led by Friedman and Dordick tested a similar method to turn on insulin production in diabetic mice. The system couples a natural iron storage particle, ferritin, and a fluorescent tag to an ion channel called TRPV1, also known as the capsaicin chili pepper receptor. Ferritin can be affected by forces such as radio waves or magnetic fields, and its presence tethered to TRPV1 can change the conformation of the ion channel.“Normally radio waves or magnetic fields, at these strengths, will pass through tissue without having any effect,” says first author Sarah Stanley (now Assistant Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai). “But when this modified ferritin is present, it responds and absorbs the energy of the radiofrequency or magnetic fields, producing motion. This motion opens the channel and allows ions into the cell. Depending on the ions flowing through the channel, this can either activate or inhibit the cells’ activity.”This study is the first to turn neurons on and off remotely with radio waves and magnetic fields. TRPV1 normally allows positive ions — such as calcium or sodium–to flow in, which activates neurons and transmits neuronal signals. The researchers were also able to achieve the opposite effect, neuronal inhibition, by mutating the TRPV1 channel to only allow negative chloride ions to flow through.“The modified TRPV1 channel was targeted specifically to glucose sensing neurons using a genetic technique known as Cre-dependent expression,” says Stanley. “To test whether a magnetic field could remotely modulate these neurons, we simply placed the mice near the electromagnetic coil of an MRI machine.”Blood sugar switchUsing this novel method, the researchers investigated the role these glucose sensing neurons play in blood glucose metabolism. Hormones released by the pancreas, including insulin, maintain stable levels of glucose in the blood. A region of the brain called the ventromedial hypothalamus was thought to play a role in regulating blood glucose, but it was not possible with previous methods to decipher which cells were actually involved.Friedman and colleagues found that when they switched these neurons on with magnetic forces, blood glucose increased, insulin levels decreased, and behaviorally, the mice ate more. When they inhibited the neurons, on the other hand, the opposite occurred, and blood glucose decreased.“We tend to think about blood glucose being under the control of the pancreas, so it was surprising that the brain can affect blood glucose in either direction to the extent that it can,” says Friedman. “It’s been clear for a while that blood glucose can increase if the brain senses that it’s low, but the robustness of the decrease we saw when these neurons were inhibited was unexpected.”Polar possibilitiesThe researchers’ system has several advantages that make it ideal for studies on other circuits in the brain, or elsewhere. It can be applied to any circuit, including dispersed cells like those involved in the immune system. It has a faster time scale than similar chemogenetic tools, and it doesn’t require an implant as is the case with so-called optogenetic techniques.In addition to its utility as a research tool, the technique may also have clinical applications. “Although it is a long ways off, this technique may offer an alternative to deep brain stimulation or trans-magnetic stimulation,” says Friedman. “We’d like to explore the possibility that this could provide some of the benefits of these without such an invasive procedure or cumbersome device.”
LinkedIn Share on Twitter People suffering from major depressive disorder may have altered purine metabolism, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital. Purines are nitrogenous compounds that serve as building blocks for DNA and they also play a role in cellular signalling, among other things.The study found that in people with depression, purine metabolism is partially hyperactive. “This can be the body’s way of combating the adverse effects of increased oxidative stress present in depression,” says PhD student Toni Ali-Sisto, the first author of the study. The findings were published in Psychoneuroendocrinology.The study carried out by the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital involved 99 adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 253 non-depressed controls. The study participants’ fasting serum concentrations of seven different purine cycle metabolites were analysed, and these concentrations were compared between the depressed and the healthy. The study also analysed whether the concentrations changed in people with depression during a follow-up of eight months, and whether remission of depression had an effect on the concentrations. Pinterest “Out of the purine metabolites we analysed, the concentrations of inosine and guanosine were lower, and the concentrations of xanthine were higher in people with depression than in healthy persons,” Ali-Sisto says.The concentrations of several metabolites changed in people with depression during the follow-up, but no significant differences were observed between remitted and non-remitted groups. The use of anti-depressants or anti-psychotics did not affect the concentrations of purine metabolites.Uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism, is produced from xanthine and it is an antioxidant combating the adverse effects of oxidative stress. Thus, the increased xanthine production may be the body’s compensatory mechanism seeking to increase the production of uric acid in order to combat increased oxidative stress caused by depression.Changes in purine metabolism have also been observed in association to low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Both of these are also associated with depression, but little research into the role of purine metabolism in depression has been conducted so far. Email Share Share on Facebook
Pinterest Share on Facebook Share on Twitter The study also found that people who were employed consistently had the lowest levels of shyness, while people who were unemployed or worked at home had the highest levels of shyness. People working in sales reported the lowest levels of shyness, while those working in unskilled jobs tended to report the highest.People who were in relationships had consistently lower levels of shyness across the lifespan compared to people who were not in relationships.PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Nejra Van Zalk of the University of Greenwich. Read her responses below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Zalk: The topic has been of interest to me since the beginning of my postgraduate studies. When starting my doctoral dissertation, which focused on shyness (or social anxiety) as a human trait (rather than a state), I noticed that the vast majority of studies I was reading were portraying shyness as an issue, or a problem to be dealt with. Even though this is slightly oversimplifying things, it is nevertheless the case that many people in the Western world (and nowadays in other parts of the world as well, as indicated by growing research), simply do not want to be shy. Since publishing my dissertation I’ve received numerous e-mails from parents asking me for advice on what to “do” about their child’s shyness. Historically speaking, however, this hasn’t always been the case, as shyness was once seen as a desirable trait (particularly for women). These tendencies in the literature have led me to question the stability of human traits in general, and I have often wondered how certain environments or significant events in a life might affect shyness – for “better” or for “worse”.Getting access to a very large dataset collected by the BBC in the UK (where more than 550.000 aged 17-70 people provided data for this particular study), we were able to explore whether rates of shyness varied across different social roles, such as working in unskilled professions (where people had highest levels of shyness) versus working in sales (with lowest levels of shyness). People in romantic relationships also had lower levels of shyness compared to those who were single. Because the data is cross-sectional we were not able to address the issue of change over time, but the data do point to an important trend – that people either change their shyness by adapting to their environment, or they choose their environment based on their shyness (such as a profession, for example).What should the average person take away from your study?The take home message from this study, I think, is that traits are malleable – that is, they are subject to change. The way we “are” isn’t necessarily written in stone, and people could use this information to their advantage. For example, if one wishes to feel less shy, one thing to do would be to subject oneself to social challenges and do things one wouldn’t usually do. In many respects, this sounds like common sense, but it is now backed up by data. This study isn’t the first to look at variations in human traits, but is certainly (as far as we know) the first one to look at variations in shyness according to social roles on such a large scale.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?The main caveat of the study is the fact that the data is cross-sectional. Having longitudinal data would have allowed us to test for bidirectional effects between the effects of social roles on shyness, and the effects of shyness of social roles in turn. This is a question that still awaits testing, and is an important one if we are to understand more about these processes.The study, “Does Shyness Vary According to Attained Social Roles? Trends Across Age Groups in a Large British Sample“, was also co-authored by Michael E. Lamb and Peter Jason Rentfrow. Research published in the Journal of Personality suggests that shyness is not a fixed trait, but something that varies over time based on a person’s social roles.The study, based on data from more than 550,000 adults in the United Kingdom, found that shyness was associated with gender, occupation, and relationship status even after controlling for various sociodemographic variables.Overall, women tended to be shyer than men throughout adulthood. But women and men displayed a different pattern of shyness over time. Men tended to be shyer when they were younger, but less shy as they grew older. Shyness levels among women, however, were more stable. Share LinkedIn Email
Share on Twitter New research in Social Psychological and Personality Science provides evidence that women strategically dampen signals of sexual permissiveness and desirability to avoid provoking intersexual aggression. In other words, the study suggests that women “dress defensively” by wearing less revealing outfits when encountering other women.“So much social psychology has focused on men’s cognition and behavior, or has long assumed that male psychology is the default. But men and women can also face some distinct challenges, and this seems especially true when we consider how women navigate their same-sex social worlds,” explained study author Jaimie Arona Krems (@JaimieKrems), an assistant professor of psychology at Oklahoma State University.“Like much of my research, this project arose out of a desire to explore how women actively, strategically navigate those underexplored worlds,” said Krems, who is also a co-founder and member of the Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis. An initial experiment with 79 female and 63 male participants found that people expected women to direct more veiled aggression (such as “acting bitchy”) towards another woman when she was revealingly dressed versus modestly dressed.The researchers then conducted three more experiments, with 584 women in total, which assessed what types of outfits women would intend wear to various types of social gatherings.The participants tended choose more modest outfits when attending an all-female gathering compared to gatherings with both men and women. This tendency was exaggerated among women who rated themselves as more physically attractive.Women who considered themselves attractive also tended to dress less revealingly when meeting a prospective new female friend. But this was not the case when attractive women were told they would be meeting with an existing female friend. Women who considered themselves as less attractive, on the other hand, tended to dress more revealingly when meeting a prospective compared to an existing female friend.Broadly speaking, the findings indicate that “like men, women can and do compete — over friends, status, romantic partners. Once we acknowledge the reality that women are active agents who compete and aggress against one another, we can generate so many questions about how women defend themselves against this aggression,” Krems told PsyPost.“More specifically, women are deeply rational and strategic; women are aware of the threats posed by others and act in ways to avoid those threats. Here, for example, we show that women are aware that appearing and/or dressing certain ways make them more likely targets of other women’s aggression, and that, in situations where this knowledge is salient, and for women most at risk of incurring aggression, women then choose to dress in ways might help them avoid others women’s slings and arrows.”The researchers found a similar dynamic when the participants were told they’d be meeting with a man. In particular, women reported intentions to dress less provocatively when meeting a prospective male friend compared to an existing male friend.“Women are wary of the costs and benefits of their clothing choices when it comes to interacting with men as well; here, however, we focused on the underexplored dynamics within women’s same-sex social worlds,” Krems said.Of course, when it comes to how women decide to dress, avoiding same-sex aggression is just one factor among many.“We would not argue that other women are always the sole intended audience for women’s sartorial cues and/or signals, and even when other women are the intended audience, we would not expect that women’s sartorial choices are always calibrated only toward avoiding intrasexual aggression,” the researchers wrote in their study.The study, “Women’s Strategic Defenses Against Same-Sex Aggression: Evidence From Sartorial Behavior“, was authored by Jaimie Arona Krems, Ashley M. Rankin, and Stefanie B. Northover. Pinterest Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share Email