Study suggests women dress modestly to defend themselves against aggression from other women

first_imgShare on Twitter New research in Social Psychological and Personality Science provides evidence that women strategically dampen signals of sexual permissiveness and desirability to avoid provoking intersexual aggression. In other words, the study suggests that women “dress defensively” by wearing less revealing outfits when encountering other women.“So much social psychology has focused on men’s cognition and behavior, or has long assumed that male psychology is the default. But men and women can also face some distinct challenges, and this seems especially true when we consider how women navigate their same-sex social worlds,” explained study author Jaimie Arona Krems (@JaimieKrems), an assistant professor of psychology at Oklahoma State University.“Like much of my research, this project arose out of a desire to explore how women actively, strategically navigate those underexplored worlds,” said Krems, who is also a co-founder and member of the Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis. An initial experiment with 79 female and 63 male participants found that people expected women to direct more veiled aggression (such as “acting bitchy”) towards another woman when she was revealingly dressed versus modestly dressed.The researchers then conducted three more experiments, with 584 women in total, which assessed what types of outfits women would intend wear to various types of social gatherings.The participants tended choose more modest outfits when attending an all-female gathering compared to gatherings with both men and women. This tendency was exaggerated among women who rated themselves as more physically attractive.Women who considered themselves attractive also tended to dress less revealingly when meeting a prospective new female friend. But this was not the case when attractive women were told they would be meeting with an existing female friend. Women who considered themselves as less attractive, on the other hand, tended to dress more revealingly when meeting a prospective compared to an existing female friend.Broadly speaking, the findings indicate that “like men, women can and do compete — over friends, status, romantic partners. Once we acknowledge the reality that women are active agents who compete and aggress against one another, we can generate so many questions about how women defend themselves against this aggression,” Krems told PsyPost.“More specifically, women are deeply rational and strategic; women are aware of the threats posed by others and act in ways to avoid those threats. Here, for example, we show that women are aware that appearing and/or dressing certain ways make them more likely targets of other women’s aggression, and that, in situations where this knowledge is salient, and for women most at risk of incurring aggression, women then choose to dress in ways might help them avoid others women’s slings and arrows.”The researchers found a similar dynamic when the participants were told they’d be meeting with a man. In particular, women reported intentions to dress less provocatively when meeting a prospective male friend compared to an existing male friend.“Women are wary of the costs and benefits of their clothing choices when it comes to interacting with men as well; here, however, we focused on the underexplored dynamics within women’s same-sex social worlds,” Krems said.Of course, when it comes to how women decide to dress, avoiding same-sex aggression is just one factor among many.“We would not argue that other women are always the sole intended audience for women’s sartorial cues and/or signals, and even when other women are the intended audience, we would not expect that women’s sartorial choices are always calibrated only toward avoiding intrasexual aggression,” the researchers wrote in their study.The study, “Women’s Strategic Defenses Against Same-Sex Aggression: Evidence From Sartorial Behavior“, was authored by Jaimie Arona Krems, Ashley M. Rankin, and Stefanie B. Northover. Pinterest Share on Facebookcenter_img LinkedIn Share Emaillast_img read more

Montauk’s Crosswalks In Residents’ Crosshairs

first_imgMontauk residents are angry with multiple blinking crosswalk signs installed earlier this year.At the meeting on September 10, Montauk resident Bonnie Brady said the tall yellow crosswalk signs with brightly-blinking yellow lights makes Main Street feel like a disco hall.“They are ineffective, ugly as hell, and they don’t really do the job,” said Brady, who is running for a seat on the town board, and asked East Hampton to deploy traffic control officers in the summer months.East Hampton Town Supervisor Peter Van Scoyoc said he’s demanded change, saying the crosswalks have been malfunctioning all summer.“There are a number of improvements that need to be made,” he said, adding the signs are too high, and flash even when nobody is on the crosswalk. They also have continued to flash long after pedestrians have crossed the road.Laraine Creegan, who heads Montauk’s Chamber of Commerce, discussed the history of the lights, and asked about the process of selecting the technology. Van Scoyoc told the room he has been in contact with the engineer in charge of the technology, whom he told the crosswalk system in its current state is “completely unacceptable,” and “will not be tolerated.”John Keeshan, a resident and businessman in the hamlet, who has been in the real estate business with an office in downtown Montauk for decades, said he was not comforted by Van Scoyoc’s comments, calling for the whole system to be removed. He compared the signs with the short-lived effort by the state to put up “Welcome to New York” signs in the Montauk dock area. Deliberately channeling President Ronald Reagan’s famous words to Mikhail Gorbachev, he said, “Please, take down those lights!”Keeshan was followed by about a half-dozen other speakers who generally reflected the same point of view.Ken Hetecheck, a longtime Montauk resident, saw things differently. “If those lights save one life, no matter what they do, it is worth it,” he Sharelast_img read more

LNG demand may fuel American prices

first_imgSubscribe Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270.last_img

REETEC Unveils Multi Connection Cabinet

first_imgGerman wind energy services provider REETEC has presented the newly developed REETEC Multi Connection Cabinet (RE-MCC) for offshore wind turbines at WindEnergy Hamburg 2016. The system had been developed based on REETEC’s experience in the field service and in the context of aviation obstruction markers. With the RE-MCC, the company developed ”a reliable, modular constructed technical solution into one cabinet and registered a patent on it already.”Temporarily, different features on an offshore wind turbine like monitoring system, obstruction and navigation lights, fire detection work independently from each other, REETEC says.Each system has its own energy supply and backup system, with different control, communications, and engineering concepts.The RE-MCC integrates these different systems in one overall system and ensures this way harmonised and safe operations of offshore wind turbines, according to the company.The system is also said to ”allow for a significant cost reduction for the hardware, installation, and commissioning, but most importantly significant time savings due to the efficiency of Operations and Maintenance.”The number of interfaces in the design of the RE-MCC was reduced significantly, the company said.RE-MCC supports a high reliability of wind turbines due to full system monitoring with the appropriate protection, control and communications systems.last_img read more

ALE completes turret project

first_imgALE, which began the project in March 2015, used 176 axle lines of SPMTs to weigh the mooring system, as part of a project to transfer the turret to South Korea where it was subsequently installed onto a ship’s hull.For the weighing operation, ALE installed two manometer gauges, which measure differences in pressure, on each of the four sets of hydraulic suspension, to increase the accuracy of the results.The turret support structure, weighing 1,265 tonnes, and an SAS gantry weighing 330 tonnes, were transported by SPMTs from the fabrication workshop to the assembly area.The fully assembled mooring system, comprising the support structure, SAS gantry and turret head, was loaded onto NYK Bulk & Project Carriers’ barge Yamatai, for onward transportation to South Korea for final installation onto the main hull.The project concluded in December 2017. www.ale-heavylift.comlast_img read more

BNSF names Ronning

first_imgRonning has more than 20 years of experience in sales, marketing and relationship management. She previously spent more than eight years in strategic sales, marketing and account management roles at C.H. Robinson.www.bnsflogistics.comlast_img

Banned solicitor turned tax consultant jailed for £1.4m investment scam

first_imgDavid Vaughan JonesSource: Heddlu Dyfed-Powys PoliceJones would use the money invested by some people to pay other clients, keeping up the appearance that the scheme was legal and profitable.In a statement, Nicola Rees of the Crown Prosecution Service said: ‘David Jones is an educated man who applied his intelligence to running a financial scam. He systematically deceived people into paying considerable sums of money to him.‘He knew from the outset that they were not paying into legitimate investments and he lied to them, using his influence within the community and on occasion as a family friend to maintain the pretence.’Jones, from Welshpool in Powys, admitted 24 charges in October last year after the scam was uncovered.It has been reported that sentencing was delayed after Jones claimed the defrauded money was being kept in a Channel Islands account, and could be repaid.But the court heard that, though victims had been asked for details of their bank accounts they have received nothing. A struck-off solicitor who turned to tax consultancy work has been sent to prison for fraud.David Vaughan Jones, 76, was jailed for six years yesterday at Mold Crown Court, after conning victims out of almost £1.5m.Jones was struck off by the Law Society in the early 1990s, which led to him working as a tax consultant despite not having qualifications in that field.It was in this role he persuaded people to pay into offshore investments that he would recommend. Jones gained the trust of people in the community from being a prominent member of the Evangelical Church.last_img read more

‘Low quality’ suspicious activity reports swamping system – Law Commission

first_imgBusinesses are sending thousands of low quality suspicious activity reports (SARs) that contain little or no useful intelligence, the Law Commission will tell the government today. ‘Enforcement agencies are struggling with a significant number of low-quality reports and criminals could be slipping through the net,’ law commissioner Professor David Ormerod QC said: ‘The reporting scheme isn’t working as well as it should.’ In a report ‘Anti-money Laundering: the SARs regime’, the commission reveals that a record 470,000 SARs were sent in 2018-2019, 10% more than in 2016-2017. These consisted of required disclosures – where the reporter knows or suspects that someone is engaged in money laundering – and authorised disclosures, where the reporter owns or is about to deal with property which they suspect is of criminal origin.The report reveals that, between October 2015 and March 2017, 15% of authorised disclosure SARs did not meet the threshold of suspicion, meaning 4,121 SARs should never have been submitted.It also found that 47.6% of authorised disclosure SARs demonstrated no objective grounds for suspicion.According to the commission, time and money is being wasted and the unnecessary reports are hindering law enforcement’s ability to investigate and prosecute crime.The wave of low-quality reports is partly blamed on the broad definition of ‘criminal property’ in section 340 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. The current definition requires that anyone suspected of laundering the proceeds of any criminal conduct must be reported.The report adds: ‘To balance this, the opportunity to obtain consent by making an authorised disclosure offers comfort and necessary legal protection, particularly to those who may, in the course of their profession, encounter property which they are suspicious may have criminal origins.’Unclear definitions of key terms and the threat of individual criminal liability has exacerbated the problem, the commission claims.The report makes a series of recommendations to the Home Office. These involve the creation of an advisory board and the creation of a standardised form for SAR submissions. It also says that statutory guidance should be issued by the secretary of state in order to reduce confusion.The commission said it expects an interim reply from the government within six months.  Ian Mynot, head of the UK Financial Intelligence Unit, said: ‘This is a comprehensive report and we will now work with the Home Office, the regulated sectors and law enforcement agencies to consider its recommendations.’Lawyers cautiously welcomed the proposals – but said the commission should have gone further. Christopher David, counsel at international firm WilmerHale said: ‘While new, improved guidance is welcome, the commission has decided not to propose changes to the scope of reporting or the consent regime. It remains to be seen whether the changes will positively assist those that are required to file such reports and consequently improve their quality.’last_img read more

World rail freight news round-up

first_imgOn June 1 RJ Corman Railroad Switching Co began providing shunting and track maintenance services at chemical and plastic company SABIC’s plant in Montgomery, Alabama. RJ Corman is providing 12 employees handling 1 000 wagons/month. ‘Our diversity of services played a key role in establishing a relationship with SABIC’, said CEO & President Ed Quinn. ‘They initially reached out to our contracting services company to inquire about building additional track. We realised there was an opportunity to offer additional services and create added efficiencies for their operations.’Proposals for amendments to the Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) were approved by the 55th session of the RID Committee of Experts on May 30. Entry into force is planned for January 1 2019. This month Spectransgarant will take delivery of the last of 300 flat wagons being supplied by Altaivagon. An order for a further 300 flat wagons for tank-container traffic is to be placed later this year, taking the STG fleet to 2 800 wagons and reducing the need to lease vehicles. Citing changes to the Maximum Revenue Entitlement formula under Canada’s Transportation Modernization Act, Canadian Pacific announced on June 7 that it intends to order 5 900 grain hopper wagons over the next four years, at a cost of C$500m, in order to revitalise its fleet and eliminate all low-capacity vehicles. It has placed an initial order for 1 000 wagons with National Steel Car, and expects to have more than 500 in service by the end of 2018. The shorter and lighter cars will eventually operate in 147-wagon trains with a maximum length of 2 590 m, up from the current limit of 112 wagons and 2 135 m. On June 7 UK regulator ORR published statistics for the year to April 2018 which recorded an overall reduction of 1·7% in total freight traffic to 17·0 billion net tonne-km. This was largely the result of a further 12·7% fall in coal movements, partly offset by a 13% increase in international rail freight and a 1·5% increase in construction traffic. Total freight lifted in 2017-18 amounted to 75 million tonnes, a decrease of 5·6% on the previous year. Canadian National announced on May 24 that would acquire 1 000 high-cube grain hopper wagons from National Steel Car over the next two years. This will allow older lower-capacity cars to be phased out of CN’s owned and leased western Canada grain fleet, which has an average age of more than 30 years. ‘This substantial investment in higher capacity payload hopper cars demonstrates our commitment to safely, efficiently and reliably moving the steadily increasing Prairie grain crop for our customers’, said interim President & CEO JJ Ruest.last_img read more