Using magnetic forces to control neurons, study finds brain is vital in glucose metabolism

first_imgLinkedIn Email Share on Twitter Pinterest Share on Facebookcenter_img Share To learn what different cells do, scientists switch them on and off and observe what the effects are. There are many methods that do this, but they all have problems: too invasive, or too slow, or not precise enough. Now, a new method to control the activity of neurons in mice, devised by scientists at Rockefeller University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, avoids these downfalls by using magnetic forces to remotely control the flow of ions into specifically targeted cells.Jeffrey Friedman, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, and colleagues successfully employed this system to study the role of the central nervous system in glucose metabolism. Published online today in Nature, the findings suggest a group of neurons in the hypothalamus play a vital role in maintaining blood glucose levels.“These results are exciting because they provide a broader view of how blood glucose is regulated–they emphasize how crucial the brain is in this process,” says Friedman. “And having a new means for controlling neural activity, one that doesn’t require an implant and allows you to elicit rapid responses, fills a useful niche between the methods that are already available.” It may also be possible to adapt this method for clinical applications, says Jonathan Dordick of Rensselaer. “Depending on the type of cell we target, and the activity we enhance or decrease within that cell, this approach holds potential in development of therapeutic modalities, for example, in metabolic and neurologic diseases.”Magnetic mind controlPrevious work led by Friedman and Dordick tested a similar method to turn on insulin production in diabetic mice. The system couples a natural iron storage particle, ferritin, and a fluorescent tag to an ion channel called TRPV1, also known as the capsaicin chili pepper receptor. Ferritin can be affected by forces such as radio waves or magnetic fields, and its presence tethered to TRPV1 can change the conformation of the ion channel.“Normally radio waves or magnetic fields, at these strengths, will pass through tissue without having any effect,” says first author Sarah Stanley (now Assistant Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai). “But when this modified ferritin is present, it responds and absorbs the energy of the radiofrequency or magnetic fields, producing motion. This motion opens the channel and allows ions into the cell. Depending on the ions flowing through the channel, this can either activate or inhibit the cells’ activity.”This study is the first to turn neurons on and off remotely with radio waves and magnetic fields. TRPV1 normally allows positive ions — such as calcium or sodium–to flow in, which activates neurons and transmits neuronal signals. The researchers were also able to achieve the opposite effect, neuronal inhibition, by mutating the TRPV1 channel to only allow negative chloride ions to flow through.“The modified TRPV1 channel was targeted specifically to glucose sensing neurons using a genetic technique known as Cre-dependent expression,” says Stanley. “To test whether a magnetic field could remotely modulate these neurons, we simply placed the mice near the electromagnetic coil of an MRI machine.”Blood sugar switchUsing this novel method, the researchers investigated the role these glucose sensing neurons play in blood glucose metabolism. Hormones released by the pancreas, including insulin, maintain stable levels of glucose in the blood. A region of the brain called the ventromedial hypothalamus was thought to play a role in regulating blood glucose, but it was not possible with previous methods to decipher which cells were actually involved.Friedman and colleagues found that when they switched these neurons on with magnetic forces, blood glucose increased, insulin levels decreased, and behaviorally, the mice ate more. When they inhibited the neurons, on the other hand, the opposite occurred, and blood glucose decreased.“We tend to think about blood glucose being under the control of the pancreas, so it was surprising that the brain can affect blood glucose in either direction to the extent that it can,” says Friedman. “It’s been clear for a while that blood glucose can increase if the brain senses that it’s low, but the robustness of the decrease we saw when these neurons were inhibited was unexpected.”Polar possibilitiesThe researchers’ system has several advantages that make it ideal for studies on other circuits in the brain, or elsewhere. It can be applied to any circuit, including dispersed cells like those involved in the immune system. It has a faster time scale than similar chemogenetic tools, and it doesn’t require an implant as is the case with so-called optogenetic techniques.In addition to its utility as a research tool, the technique may also have clinical applications. “Although it is a long ways off, this technique may offer an alternative to deep brain stimulation or trans-magnetic stimulation,” says Friedman. “We’d like to explore the possibility that this could provide some of the benefits of these without such an invasive procedure or cumbersome device.”last_img read more

Barbados ratifies CONSLE Protocol

first_img CARICOM Heads to tackle wide-ranging agenda at Barbados… Caribbean Countries Call For Paradigm Shift in International… Following the signing ceremony, Prime Minister Stuart told the Barbados Government Information Service that ratifying the Protocol was a symbol of the country’s commitment to ensuring the security of the region. Read more at: Barbados Government Information Service  Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Aug 5, 2020 You may be interested in… CRIME DOWN BY 41 PERCENT IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS, MAJOR CRIMES… Feb 14, 2020center_img Media Advisory – CARICOM IMPACS Virtual Security… Apr 24, 2020 Prime Minister of Barbados, the Hon Freundel Stuart signs the agreement as CARICOM General Counsel, Ms. Safiya Ali looks on Barbados has ratified the Protocol Amending the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas to incorporate the Council for National Security and Law Enforcement (CONSLE) as an Organ of the Community, and the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) as an Institution of the Community. Prime Minister Freundel Stuart signed the Protocol and deposited the Instrument of Ratification on behalf of the Government of Barbados during the first business session of the 28th Inter-sessional Meeting of the Conference of the Heads of Government of CARICOM in Guyana on Thursday. Jul 27, 2020 Barbados Ratifies CONSLE ProtocolBarbados has ratified the Protocol Amending the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas to incorporate the Council for National Security and Law Enforcement (CONSLE) as an Organ of the Community, and the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) as an Institution of the Community. Prime Minister Freundel Stuart signed the…February 19, 2017In “Barbados”PM Stuart to attend Intersessional SummitPrime Minister Freundel Stuart arrives in Guyana today to attend the Twenty-Eighth Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), from February 16 to 17. Following the adoption of the Agenda, Heads of Government are expected to discuss a wide range of issues that are critical…February 15, 2017In “Barbados”PM Stuart to attend CARICOM Heads of Government MeetingPrime Minister Freundel Stuart will leave Barbados on Monday, July 3, to attend the Thirty-Eighth Regular Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), at the Radisson Hotel in St. George’s, Grenada. The opening ceremony will be held on Tuesday, July 4, at the Grenada…June 30, 2017In “Antigua & Barbuda”Share this on WhatsApplast_img read more

North Fork News

first_imgMattituck-Laurel LibraryThe Mattituck-Laurel Library will screen “The Bookshop,” a PG-rated film set in England during the late 1950s when a woman decides to open a bookshop, on February 15 at 1:30 PM.The library will also sponsor the concert “Something Romantic with Mitch Kahn,” in which Kahn will sing covers of love songs by Cole Porter, Jacques Brel, Kurt Weill, Andrew Lloyd Webber, and other artists, on Sunday, February 17, at 2 PM.The library will present “I Shall Be Good Health to You: 1819-2019 Whitman Bicentennial Celebration” on Tuesday, February 19, at 11 AM. Jerry Matovcik will offer an overview of Walt Whitman’s life and poems. Register at the circulation desk.The library will also offer health insurance counseling on Tuesday, February 19, from 1:30 to 3 PM for seniors and other Medicare-eligible persons, sponsored by the Suffolk County Office for the Aging. Call the circulation desk for an appointment.The events and services are free. For more information, visit www.mattitucklaurellibrary.org or call 631-298-4134.Jamesport Farm BreweryJamesport Farm Brewery in Riverhead will host a “Pints, Flights, & Trivia Night” on Friday, February 15, at 6:30 p.m. Groups of three can sign up for the hour-long trivia night. Winners will be awarded prizes.Southold Historical SocietyThe Southold Historical Society will present “The Story of Long Beach Bar Lighthouse (Bug Light)” as part of the Winter Lecture Series on March 5 at 4 PM.A navigational tool for mariners around the hazardous sandbar located between Orient Harbor and Gardner’s Bay, the Bug Light welcomes mariners to the protected waters of Peconic Bay. Ted Webb, the chairman of Southold Town Historic Preservation Commission, will trace the history of the lighthouse from the 1870s to the present and also show the video “The Re-Building of Bug Light.”Webb is also the chairman of Brecknock Hall Foundation, secretary of the Peconic Landing Board of Trustees, and a narrator of the Offshore Lighthouse Cruises Cross Sound Ferry.“Ted Webb is an enthralling speaker,” Deanna Witte-Walker, the executive director of the Southold Historical Society, said. “He has a terrific way of sharing his extensive knowledge of local history as well as his personal experiences on the North Fork.”The talk will be held at the Peconic Landing Auditorium in Greenport. Call 631-765-5500 to RSVP. Admission is free.Suffolk County Historical SocietyThe Suffolk County Historical Society Museum will host will host “Book & Bottle: African Genealogy” with Sandi Brewster-Walker on Saturday, February 16, at 1 PM.Attendees can learn about African American family history research accompanied by resources for consolation. Light refreshments and admission to current exhibitions will be included. The event is free for members and $5 for non-members. To RSVP, call 631-727-2881, extension 100. The society is at 300 West Main Street in Riverhead.Compiled By Genevieve M. Kotz Sharelast_img read more

Creative Networking Nights

first_imgOn Friday, April 12, the East Hampton Arts Council and Golden Eagle Artist Supply presented one of the Council’s “Creative Networking Nights” in the Golden Eagle/Studio 144. Creative artists in every medium gathered to share their experiences and to hear from speakers who shared their personal stories. Sharelast_img

ABICOR BINZEL hires new Key Accounts Manager

first_imgGet instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270. Subscribelast_img

Experts Gather at NOC to Discuss Future Monitoring of Oceans

first_imgOver 100 marine professionals gathered at the National Oceanography Centre for a workshop on new technologies for monitoring the marine environment.The UK Integrated Marine Observing Network (UK-IMON) workshop last week aimed to identify technologies that, in the future, will provide both the greatest cost savings and the greatest advances in data resolution. The event attracted representatives from across the marine community, including scientists, oil and gas experts, vendors and policy makers.International experts provided overviews on different marine monitoring technologies, including conventional platforms such as ships, buoys and landers, as well as autonomous systems, sensors and using satellites to monitor the oceans remotely. Discussions ensued on how to prioritise new technologies, in terms of where investment from Government, research and industry should be channeled.With increasing political, environmental and financial drivers for more detailed and extensive observations of our seas, there is a demand for reliable and cost-effective technologies for ongoing observation of the marine environment.Dr Henry Ruhl, Head of the DeepSeas Group at the National Oceanography Centre and member of the workshop organising committee, expressed excitement at how these technologies are advancing: “Many ideas have progressed from being experimental to operational – and at a faster rate than expected,” he said. “This means that the technology will be able to be used more widely.”The organisers hope that one output from the workshop will be proposals for funding for the most promising technologies, so that they may be more viable for use in the UK’s observing network.The workshop was organised by the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (IMAREST) and UK-IMON, and funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).Press Release, September 17, 2013last_img read more

Anadarko brings experience to its board

first_imgAnadarko, the developer of the giant Mozambique LNG project, has named Claire Farley to serve as an independent director of the company.Speaking of the appointment, Anadarko chairman, president and CEO, Al Walker, said Farley brings far-reaching experience in finance, strategic investments, mergers and acquisitions, and exploration and new ventures.Farley serves as vice chair of energy, advising KKR & Co.’s Energy group. Prior to joining KKR in 2011, she was co-founder and co-CEO of RPM Energy, a privately owned oil and natural gas exploration and development company, which partnered with KKR.Prior to founding RPM Energy, Farley was a senior advisor at Jefferies Randall & Dewey, a global oil and gas industry advisor, and was co-president of Jefferies Randall & Dewey from February 2005 to July 2008. Before that, Farley served as CEO of Randall & Dewey, an oil and gas asset transaction advisory firm, from September 2002 until February 2005, when Randall and Dewey became the oil and gas investment banking group of Jefferies & Company.Farley held several positions within Texaco from 1981 to 1999, including president of worldwide exploration and new ventures, president of North American production and CEO of Hydro-Texaco. Farley also served as CEO of Intelligent Diagnostics Corporation from October 1999 to January 2001 and of Trade-Ranger from January 2001 to May 2002.Farley also serves as a director of LyondellBasell Industries and TechnipFMC. In addition to her public directorships, Farley also is a board member of Samson Resources, a private company, and the Houston advisory board of the Nature Conservancy.last_img read more

The number of workers going back to site means a U-turn recovery is unlikely

first_imgGet your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Subscribe now for unlimited access To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGINlast_img read more

Maersk progresses with logistics integration

first_imgThe APM network of inland terminals consists of 36 business units covering 100 locations. The integration of this network is part of A.P. Møller-Mærsk’s strategy to offer end-to-end solutions for its customers.“By structurally adding inland services to Maersk, customers will have seamless access to a wider range of logistics and services offerings,” explained Søren Toft, executive vice president and chief operating officer at A.P. Møller-Mærsk.APM Terminals will continue to serve shipping lines and landside customers with services on and around the port premises, such as traditional storage and terminal handling.Speaking with HLPFI earlier this month, Kristian Lund Knudsen, director and global head of special and dangerous cargo solutions for Maersk, explained that the landside supply chain is one area that the company is strengthening.“We are developing our capabilities so we can help customers move cargo from the place of production to the final destination. In some markets, in particular North America, we have an established offering in this space, while in other places we are in the process of building our capabilities. We are already providing solutions both to our forwarder and direct shipper customers.”Maersk also owns the Damco freight forwarding business. The carrier is presently integrating its supply chain management functions, such as origin logistics and Customs brokerage, into its core transportation business.“Over the last 12 months we have seen healthy growth in the market for oversize cargo transportation and I expect that to continue throughout 2019. This holds true both for non-project oversize cargo as well as for regular project cargo,” added Lund Knudsen.www.apmterminals.comwww.maersk.comlast_img read more

Wait to cut umbilical cord, experts urge

first_img (CNN) For decades, experts have argued over when to clamp and cut a newborn’s umbilical cord after birth.Now, more health organizations are beginning to recommend delayed cord clamping. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has become one of the latest to advise medical professionals to wait at least 30 to 60 seconds before clamping and cutting.Throughout a pregnancy, the umbilical cord carries important nutrients and blood from the mother to the baby. After birth, a clamp is put on the cord, and it is cut so that the baby is no longer attached to the placenta. This procedure is one of the oldest involved in birth.In most Western countries, including the United States, the cord is clamped immediately after birth: usually between 10 to 15 seconds after.In the first few minutes after birth, blood is still circulating from the placenta to the infant. When clamping is put off for two or three minutes, it allows a physiological transfer of oxygen-rich blood to flow into the infant — a process called placental transfusion.A growing body of research shows that both full-term and preterm infants may benefit from this additional blood volume. Experts say this can affect development, especially for babies born early.“We have known for several years that among preterm infants, delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of several serious complications of prematurity, such as anemia,” Dr. Maria A. Mascola, lead author of the recommendation, wrote in an e-mail.“In recent years, more information has accumulated that showed that even among full-term infants, delaying clamping of the baby’s umbilical cord can be helpful also,” she added.Doctors traditionally cut the cord so quickly because of long-held beliefs that placental blood flow could increase birth complications such as neonatal respiratory distress, a type of blood cancer called polycythemia and jaundice from rapid transfusion of a large volume of blood.However, recent research has shown that delayed clamping does not cause complications in either the mother or the child.“There has also been concern about whether delayed cord clamping would pose more risk to the mother, specifically, would it lead to more risk of excessive blood loss at the time of delivery,” Mascola wrote in the e-mail.“We now have good evidence that delayed cord clamping does not add to that risk. Womens’ postpartum blood counts are similar, whether they have undergone delayed cord clamping or not.”Placental transfusion in full-term infants — babies born between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation — has been shown to increase hemoglobin levels and provide sufficient iron reserves in the first 6 to 8 months of life, preventing or delaying an iron deficiency, according to the recommendation.In preterm infants — those born before 37 weeks — delayed clamping has been associated with improved circulation in the infant’s heart, better red blood cell volume and decreased need for blood transfusion. It has also been shown to lower the occurrence of brain hemorrhage and an intestinal disease called necrotizing enterocolitis.The benefits of delayed clamping in preterm infants are clear, but in full-term infants, more research is needed, according to Dr. Colleen Denny, an OB/GYN and assistant clinical professor at the New York University School of Medicine who was not involved in the recommendation.“Preterm infants definitely do better with delayed cord clamping,” Denny said, noting that they have fewer serious problems such as brain bleeds and intestinal issues. “For term infants, we don’t really have that data yet.”Other organizations have also made similar recommendations.The World Health Organization recommends that the umbilical cord should be clamped after the first minute. However, in some babies who can’t breathe on their own, the cord should be cut immediately to allow effective ventilation to be performed, it says.The American College of Nurse-Midwives recommends delaying the clamping of the cord in full-term infants for five minutes if the newborn is placed skin-to-skin with the mother or two minutes if the newborn is at or below the height of the vaginal canal.The American Academy of Pediatrics also recommends waiting at least 30 to 60 seconds for most newborns.Expectant parents interested in delayed clamping should speak with their physician to ensure that both the mom and baby are in a stable condition to do so, according to Denny.She explains to her patients that, if there is any kind of emergency with the mom or baby, they should not wait to clamp the cord.“Even though there are benefits, the bigger benefit is getting patients the care they need right away,” she said. Do you see a typo or an error? Let us know. Published: March 5, 2017 9:01 AM EST SHAREcenter_img Wait to cut umbilical cord, experts urge Author: CNN last_img read more